The Role of Evidence in Risk Characterization: Making Sense of Conflicting Data

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Framing (social sciences)

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Chapter 4. What Are You Writing, to Whom, and How?

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Techniques to Identify Themes in Qualitative Data

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Risk Assessment of Mycotoxins - Stimulating research and data collection

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Shift work, cancer and "white-box" epidemiology: Association and causation

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Searching for climate—conflict links. Levy, M. Sampling bias does not exaggerate climate—conflict claims. Change 8 , Gleick, P. Nature , Conclusion of conflict and climate analysis questioned. Scheffran, J. Climate change and violent conflict. Science , — Gleditsch, N. Conflicting messages?

The IPCC on conflict and human security. Ide, T. On climate, conflict and cumulation: suggestions for integrative cumulation of knowledge in the research on climate change and violent conflict. Change Peace Secur. Gemenne, F. Climate and security: evidence, emerging risks, and a new agenda. Change , 1—9 The Eurobarometer, , to Asia and Australia Wiedemann et receiver of a message — for instance, a message about the riskiness of RF al. If suit- high priority on the political agenda, with several hundred millions ably motivated, they then evaluate the validity of the claim, possessing of Euros spent on EMF risk research in the last two decades.

This the relevant knowledge to do so. In this case, the receiver will scrutinize resulted in over published experimental and epidemiological the quality of the arguments upon which the claim is based studies FEMU, Although a situation, the receiver of a message relies on more sketchy features.

In effect the receiver can only evaluate the cred- CORA framework.

This broad applicability is possible because CORA sessment. First, credibility can be linked They pertain to the assessment itself the content , the process of the to the evaluation of the past experience with an actor. Here inferen- assessment and the particular characteristics of the assessors Fig. Second, cred- ment reporting.

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Criteria for checking the compliance with the objective ibility can be rooted in perceived value similarity. Here, choice heuris- is also given, followed by a rationale for this objective. Finally, points for tics are applied to judge credibility Earle, Section 1: overview of the report val between what a person can do without any support and what he or she can do with support.

The idea that some types of support are 5. Objective more helpful than other types is essential. From this point of view, Obtain a clear picture about the fundamental characteristics of the our question concerns which information about a hazard assessment report Table 1. Rationale ment. The central idea here is to support people to choose more ap- Anyone looking for information, e.

In addition, the aim is also to provide author's and publisher's names, and the year of publication Leicht, an opportunity for risk assessors to self-evaluate the credibility of It is a simple heu- ristic that assigns trust to those who are familiar and distrust to those who are unfamiliar. The development of CORA a better chance of gaining trust. In addition, the expression of empathy and The framework for supporting informed credibility judgments on willingness for caring is required Earle, ; Peters et al.

Furthermore, the objectives of the assess- CORA was developed by members of a working group on risk ment report and the topic s covered by the report are essential informa- management that used to be part of BM project. The BM tion for the reader.

  • Introduction.
  • Related Articles;
  • It supports cooperation among scientists and re- searchers across Europe. The devel- 5. It led to the conclusion Search for information about to whom the assessors are account- that non-experts might base their evaluation of credibility on either able Table 2.

    The Structure of an Expository Essay

    Therefore, we focused on the ques- tion of which information will enable non-experts to link a hazard or 5. Especially various available EMF risk assessments. Among them were EMF important to know are the funding source of the report and informa- risk assessments conducted by the International Commission for tion on which organization the risk assessors are accountable.