When this Liquamen, as it was called, had been much reduced over a period of six weeks by evaporation. It was placed in a basket with perforated bottom through which the residue filtered slowly into a receptacle. Roman prices tended to fluctuate according to local conditions, thus historians are unable to determine exact values and make concretised observations.
Copper asses were the most common form of currency as people did not trust their slaves with the likes of denarii let alone the precious gold aureus. A collection of coins was found in the dolium of counter in the Inn of Lucius Vetutius Placidus, indicating that Pompeians had an ancient form of cash registers! The typical role of women in Roman society was to perform tasks such as running the household, bringing up the children and controlling finances; Rome is a military empire, and the men had to be out training all day as soldiers, working as a politician for the empire, or be an external merchant; thus, Pompeian women had much more freedom than their Roman counterparts.
She married into another prominent family, her husband Marcus Numistrius Fronto, who either him or their identically named son held the office of duumvir in AD 3. Caecilius Juncundus 11, sestertii, less a percentage [ per cent] as his commission, for the auction of good on her behalf. One feature of life that was common to all levels of society in Pompeii and Herculaneum was the relationship of client and patron.
Elite freeborn families acted as patrons to those in the lower class. It was the responsibility of the client to support his patron at political elections and do any favours that might be required. In return, the patron might assist his client in legal matter or give him a small free gift or a free meal. One example of the patron-client relationship at Pompeii was that between Eumachia and the guild of fullers. The statue of Eumachia was erected in her honour by the fullers guild. In a way similar to Rome itself, where the great senatorial families had an impressive tradition of office-holding and public service, powerful local Pompeians offered both protection and assistance to individuals.
They assisted those who sought advancement in political office or desired to make connections and alliances that would help them in business or in social life. In return, the patrons expected support in elections and public recognition of their exalted status.
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The patron, patronus , could expect support from his clients, clients. Every patronus sought to outdo his rivals in the size and extent of his supporters, clientela. The number of clients who came to your house in the morning, or who accompanied you to the forum, or who cheered you in the theatre, indicated your importance. Patronage might also be extended to separate groups within the community or to the whole populace, whose support was won by offering benefits, beneficia. Benefits could include the provision of food, gladiatorial entertainments, public works or projects such as theatres, temples or public baths.
They operated as co-mayors of Pompeii and could only serve one year. Elections took place each year in the spring. They were also in charge of justice. Aediles: Two citizens were elected to this position each year. A team from Oxford university has been investigating remains from latrine pits and sewers at Pompeii. As latrines were usually in the kitchen they were used to dispose of both human excrement and food scraps. So far, mineralised seeds, small bones and marine shell fragments have been found.
Further work is being carried out as part of the Herculaneum Conservation Project which should provide more dietary sources. Professor Wilhelmina Jashekski, an archarologist specialising in the gardens of Pompeii, discovered that many houses had spaces for the cultivation of figs, olives, cherries and other fruits and vegetables.
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Evidence for viticulture grape growing within Pompeii and hence for the drinking of wine came from her discovery of a vineyard within the walls. Artworks including frescoes and mosaics that feature foods such as fruit, fish, poultry, and game also provide information about diet at Pompeii and Herculaneum.
Laconium: A small round room useed as a sweat bath, usually with dry heat.
The room was heated either by a fireplace, hot stones or a brazier placed at the centre of the room. Calidarium: The principal bath chamber for a hot-water or steam bath, containing a communal, rectangular pool and a basin. Frigidarium: A vaulted chamber for cold baths, containing one or more cold-water pools.
Normally visited after the heated rooms. Ceilings had grooves in the plaster which collected and channelled the condensation down the walls. Destrictarium: Scraping-room, where oil and sweat were removed from the body with strigils. Temples at Herculaneum are yet to be excavated, whereas there are a number of temples and sanctuaries in Pompeii.
They were regarded as the homes for gods and goddesses and consisted of a cella to contain the statue of the deity which stood before an altar. Most temples at Pompeii came from the Roman period of occupation and were dedicated to public cults, enabling the people to demonstrate their loyalty to Rome. There was little focus on personal religious devotion. The bones include parts of piglets and the heads and feet of cocks.
The carbonised remains include stone — pine cones, figs, dates, grapes and hazel nuts. Other items include a piece of poppy seed bread or pastry. These remains have been interpreted as offerings to the Lares. Several classical authors refer to such offerigns and they are depicted on wall paintings at lararia in Pompeii but these are the first occasions such remains have been found in the ground.
In , with the unification of Italy the Kingdom of Naples was annexed to the Kingdom of Italy and the demise of the Bourbon dynasty, a new era in Pompeian excavation began.
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Giuseppe Fiorelli was appointed as inspector of the excavations and three years later was given direction of the Naples museum as well as the superintendency of Pompeii. Whether he was primarily a political pragmatist, administrator or arch innovator, Fiorelli arguably remains the individual who had the greatest impact upon the way in which Pompeii has been both excavated and perceived. To some extent, his innovations were the result of a gradual process which had begun ten years before. Fiorelli wanted to:.
His meticulous excavation method showed how the buildings along the main east — west street had been buried, and allowed him to reconstruct their facades as fully as possible, particularly the upper floors, with their windows, balconies and roofs. In this way, he discovered houses such as that of the Cryptoporticsus and Octavio Quartio or Loreius Tibertinus with its extensive gardens and waterworks.
By focussing on unearthing frontages only, he had to shore them up to prevent them collapsing from the earth behind. Also, he could only guess at the exact function of many shops. Maiuri took over the directorship of Pompeii in and remained in charge until his retirement in He has often been described as the most productive, determined and controversial director in the history of excavations.
His most productive period corresponded with the Fascist government of Mussolini — the twenties through to the outbreak of World War II — when Italian archaeology as a whole benefited from an injection of state funds. Excavations ceased during the war, and Pompeii suffered serious damage from bomb dropped by the allies in Digging was resumed in , and until there was intensive activity at Pompeii with over ten insulae totally cleared. However, much of the latter work was hurried and chronically underfunded.
Despite his wide — ranging excavations, by the time he retired, 26 hectares of the total site of 66 hectares were still not excavated. Rostovtzeff was a Russian exile who became professor of ancient history and archaeology at Yale University. For his history, he had drawn on his knowledge of Pompeii which he had visited several times. It is believed that Maiuri drew on Rostovtzeff for his interpretation of the archaeological finds in P and Herc. Maiuri looked for physical evidence of economic and social change in both towns.
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The following extracts were written 16 years apart. Post-earthquake] that we witness the transformation of many upperclass houses into officinae and in the intrusion of shops. Cuponae and thermopolia into the interior and along the facades of patrician residences, the splitting up of a single, grand, upper-class house into several modest buildings the change and perversion of taste in type and style of the decoration of the rooms, sacrificing beautiful and noble old paintings for banal and poor redecoration.
In short, the invasion of the mercantile class of the structure of the old Romano-Campanian patrician class of the city. To Maiuri, Pompeii and Herculaneum — particularly in the last 17 years of their existence — were in decline. He maintained that the Pompeian forum was still in shambles when Vesuvius erupted, and that this reflected the depressed economic conditions in Pomp after the earthquake of 62 AD. Although unaware of it, tourists today are still under the influence of Maiuri with his picture of Pompeian society expressed in most of the guide books and popular works.
Some of the criticisms levelled at Maiuri include:. Maiuri set the agenda for future work at both sites. These were to be used to stimulate discussions about Pompeian urbanism among scholars, and to use the forum data to study the Pompeian response to the earthquake of 62AD. Structural engineering principles were brought to bear on archaeological questions.
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Much of the documentation work was performed using an electronic surveying device that interfaces with AutoCAD. Began in because existing architectural plans of the forum were inaccurate and incomplete and architectural and decorative remains documents as late as were already deteriorating rapidly. To produce more accurate plans and elevations of the surviving remains, supplemented by large-format black and white photographs of archival quality, and computer models. These were to be used to stimulate discussions about Pompeian urbanism among scholars and to use the forum data to study the Pompeian response to the earthquake of AD Included archaeologists, a specialist in Roman architecture, an urban architectural historian, an urban designer, engineers and computer and AutoCAD specialists.
Much of the documentation work was performed using an electronic surveying device that interfaces with AutoCad.