Sand Control in Well Construction and Operation

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This process involves running a perforation gun and a reservoir locating device into the wellbore, many times via a wireline, slickline or coiled tubing. Once the reservoir level has been reached, the gun then shoots holes in the sides of the well to allow the hydrocarbons to enter the wellstream. The perforations can either be accomplished via firing bullets into the sides of the casing or by discharging jets, or shaped charges, into the casing. While the perforation locations have been previously defined by drilling logs, those intervals cannot be easily located through the casing and cement.

To overcome this challenge, a gamma ray-collar correlation log is typically implemented to correlate with the initial log run on the well and define the locations where perforation is required. Some wells require filtration systems in order to keep the wellstream clear of sand. In addition to running a casing with a liner, gravel packing is used to prevent sand from entering the wellstream.

More complicated than cementing a well, gravel packing requires a slurry of appropriately sized pieces of coarse sand -- or gravel -- to be pumped into the well between the slotted liner of the casing and the sides of the wellbore. The wire screens of the liner and the gravel pack work together to filter out the sand that might have otherwise entered the wellstream with the hydrocarbons.

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The last step in completing a well, a wellhead is installed at the surface of the well. Many times called a production tree or Christmas tree, the wellhead device includes casingheads and a tubing head combined to provide surface control of the subsurface conditions of the well. While both onshore and offshore wells are completed by production trees, offshore wells can be completed by two different types of trees: dry and wet trees.

Wet trees, on the other hand, are installed on the seabed and encased in a solid steel box to protect the valves and gages from the elements. The subsea wet tree is then connected via electronic or hydraulic settings that can be manipulated from the surface or via ROVs. Additionally, wells may have production flowing from multiple reservoir levels. These wells require multiple completions, which keep the production separate.


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Double-wing trees are installed on multiple reservoir levels. Our sand control services begin with an in-depth analysis of the reservoir and well conditions to help design and select the optimum fluid systems and downhole equipment for every well. Halliburton provides specialized surface and downhole equipment including gravel pack packers and screens to inhibit the movement of formation sand into the wellbore, surface pumping equipment, fluid systems, and filtration systems —all supported by completion service designed to help operators capture the best value from their assets.

Our unique technology gives precise pore size control and provides the highest solids retention and plugging resistance possible.

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Sand Control Halliburton Sand Control Services provides a single source of solutions for all of your sand control challenges. Alternative sand control Hydraulic screen technology was developed to set a new benchmark in operational efficiency by removing the need for pumped sand control, greatly reducing the associated time, labor, and operational and logistics costs. Hydraulically activated from the surface, a maximum crew of two is required offshore for an operation using standard rig practices.

The screens are designed to integrate fully with standard completion equipment and rig handling operations. After deploying to setting depth, the hanger and screens are set by surface-applied pressure from the rig cementing unit; this operation typically only takes 1 hr. Once set, the screens extend radially to close the annular gap and provide positive wellbore support. The technology suits well designs with 8. The hanger packer is set and reservoir isolation barrier closed in the same trip, providing testable barriers prior to displacing the well for upper completion operations.

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Rig time is greatly reduced with the removal of steps from the well program for circulation and displacement of specialist fluids for gravel pack pumping operations. The screen design provides mechanical strength and high collapse resistance for applications where severe geomechanical changes might occur or where extreme production conditions exist.

The strength of the completion is therefore maximized, its large internal diameter retained throughout to ensure life of well operational efficiency; well intervention functionality; and options for selective production, injection and internal and external isolation and shutoff. Applications The screens are suitable for all sand control applications but are particularly suitable for offshore, remote or environmentally challenging locations. The recent Statoil installation involved a mature offshore environment faced with continuous reservoir pressure depletion. The producer well was drilled to 2, m 8, ft at a maximum deviation of 30 degrees and at a temperature of about 80 C F.

The technology is designed to complete complex wells with less risk such as horizontal and multilateral wells. Extended-reach drilling also poses an issue when the operator may want to step out to reach a pocket of the reservoir.

What is a Sand and Gravel Well?
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