By: Nijkamp, F. P [editor.
Contributor s : Parnham, Michael J [editor. Tags from this library: No tags from this library for this title. Log in to add tags. Holdings 0 Title notes Comments 0 No physical items for this record. Log in to your account to post a comment. Industry Reviews "It has exhausted all problems of immunopharmacology as never any other book has realized previously. Introduction: Altering the chain of command in host defence. More Books in Immunology See All. In Stock. Defeating the Ministers of Death The compelling story of vaccination. Cellular and Molecular Immunology 9e.
Healing The New Childhood Epidemics. Mims' Medical Microbiology and Immunology. The Autoimmune Epidemic. Essential Cell Biology 4th Edition. Item Added: Principles of Immunopharmacology. Because miR is only liver enriched in physiological conditions and there is high amount of miR in adult human liver, it may be an ideal target to design highly specific anti-HCV drugs with good resistance to HCV infected person, particularly to those who have no tolerance to traditional treatments. In the following years, miR [ 78 ], let-7b family [ 79 ] and some other miRNAs were then proved to influence HCV life cycle, providing new target to restrict hepatitis C infection and avoid chronic infection.
Even Drosha, the enzyme that processes miRNA biogenesis and maturation, was an independent factor for limiting RNA virus replication along with canonical type I IFN system in particular cell type [ 83 ].
Perspectives on RNA Interference in Immunopharmacology and Immunotherapy
Above of all, it is much likely that miRNA mimics for viral inhibitory miRNAs or antagonists for viral beneficial miRNAs can be effective antiviral strategies as intrinsic immune drugs. Neutralizing this miRNA might recover normal cytokines production. Moreover, Enterovirus 71 EV71 inhibited miR transcription in an IRF-dependent way and so as to attenuate virus-triggered type I interferon production.
With the general knowledge of immunologically relevant miRNAs established in the past 10 years, many miRNAs have been intensively investigated using gain- and loss-of-function methods, showing how this novel class of small non-coding RNA participates in mammalian immunity.
And individual immune miRNA might contribute its implications to various immune-mediated diseases. The role of miRb in immune signalling may be paradoxical. Moreover, during M. Taken together, whether overexpression or inhibition of miRb in an anti-infection therapeutic study depends on concrete circumstances.
Principles of Immunopharmacology | SpringerLink
Silencing of miRa via the delivery of sponge or antagomiR could restore the expression of inflammatory factors, augment type I IFN production and promote clearance of vesicular stomatitis virus VSV [ 96 ], dengue virus [ 97 ], enterovirus 71 EV71 [ 94 , 98 ] and HBV [ 95 ]. Unlike miRa, miR always promotes immune signal transduction, enhances immune function or speeds lymphocyte proliferation. Mice lacking miR have impaired CTL cell responses to infections with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus and the intracellular bacteria Listeria monocytogenes because of insufficient activation of Akt pathway after TCR cross-linking [ ].
These studies imply miR as an immune-augmenting adjuvant in improving the antigenicity of vaccination. It is noteworthy that two groups of miRNAs, which shaped NK-mediated cytotoxicity, have potent value for developing antiviral and anti-tumour biodrugs. Furthermore, non-classical human leukocyte antigen G HLA-G is known as an inhibitory ligand, which suppresses the cytotoxic activity of T and NK cells.
Principles of Immunopharmacology / Edition 3
Studies demonstrated a strong post-transcriptional gene regulation of the HLA-G by miRa, miRb and miR, and lower expression of these miRNAs in renal carcinoma [ ] and placental choriocarcinoma cells [ ]. Therefore, it could be concluded that modulating the expression or inhibition of specific miRNAs could boost immune response during viral infections or against cancers. Because several miRNAs participate in immune cell development and differentiation, abnormal expression of miRNA may cause a disturbance of homeostasis by changing the ratio of helper and regulatory cell subsets, or perturb the functionality and survival of effect-memory cells that lead to lymphoproliferative disease.
Utilization of miRNA interference techniques may recover regular immune balance. Overexpression of this miRNA in T cells would enhance Tfh cell proliferation and survive an autoantibody production [ ].
Moreover, miR deficiency ameliorates autoimmune inflammation of SLE by targeting s1pr1 in mice [ ]. Therefore, miR and miR might be a new target to restrain aggressive autoimmune response in SLE. Abnormal expression of miR is associated with high serum titers of glutamic acid decarboxylase antibody in T1D patients, indicating the involvement of miR in the sustained immune imbalance during T1D progress [ ].
These findings raised the possibility of developing a new clue for T1D immunotherapy using miRNA-based agents. The role of miRa in controlling Treg-mediated decrease of Th1 responses has been demonstrated [ ]. Therefore, imbalance of miRa and miR may be an epigenetic phenotype for autoimmune response.
Multiple sclerosis MS is manifested by chronic and progressive inflammatory demyelination of the central nervous system and is one of the main causes of regressive neurological diseases. Study on MS animal model illustrated that mice with fewer Th17 cells were less susceptible to experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis EAE [ ].
Therefore, Thtargeting biotherapeutic approaches may be a promising way to cure multiple sclerosis. Inversely, increased miR in primary human microglia up-regulated pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion and co-stimulatory surface marker expression suggested that miR inhibition in myeloid cell might be useful to suppress allogeneic T cell responses [ ]. In conclusion, reverse pathological expressed miRNAs and re-balance dysregulated immune genes are of consideration to treat multiple sclerosis.
RNAi technology holds promise for treating various human diseases.
It is becoming apparent that clinical outcome of cancer immunotherapy and infectious diseases can be improved by targeted strategies to abrogate tumour-induced immunosuppression. The present researches highlighted the potential therapeutic applications of this new generation of siRNAs in immunotherapy. This requires more extensive procedure than any other traditional drugs.
Table of contents
Considering clinical challenges for RNA-based nucleic acid drugs, including barriers and RNases, the advanced tissue-directed delivery systems with safety, high efficiency and specificity, long-term function and controllability are required. The development of multifunctional RNAi molecules will greatly contribute to the future arsenal of tools to combat not only microbial pathogens but also hard-to-treat cancer. Licensee IntechOpen. This chapter is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 3. Help us write another book on this subject and reach those readers.
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